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Full text of " A descriptive catalogue of the glass vessels in the South Kensington Museum [microform] " See other formats Google This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project to make the world's books discoverable online.

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About Google Book Search Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. B »o3. Egypt and Phoenicia - - - - - i Egypt and the Eafl China excepted after A. Glafs of Venice and other Italian States - - "4' V.

Glafs of France - - - - - "85 VI. England - - - - - - X, China - - - - - - Appendix. Page Appendix. Germany - - - - - - Roumania Ruffia Spain Venice - - - - - - - Index.. Page I. Vafe, ancient Egyptian or Phopni- '1 cian -. Bottle, ancient Roman 2. Fragments of Mural Decoration, ancient Roman. Cbromoiithograpb - 19 vn. Beaker, Venetian - - Woodcut - 41 X. Fifh, Woodcut - 64 XIV. Wine Glafs, Venetian - 2. Pilgrim's Bottle, Spanifh 2. Wiederkom, German - Cbromo lithograph - XX.

LASS is a fubllance the principal and eflential conftituents of which are Ulica and an alkali. It may be confidered as coniilting of one or more faltSj which are fllicates with bafes of potafh, ibda, lime, oxide of iron, aluminium, or lead, in any of which compounds one of thefe bafes may be fubftituted for another, provided that one alkaline bafe be left. Ure's "Dictionary of Chemiftry, Art. The firft, known as oblidian, is found in the vicinity of volcanoes, and is an impure femi-tranfparent glafs, varying in colour from grey to black ; it has been ufed in the fabrication of works of art by the Egypdans and Romans, and in later times by the Mexicans.

The other clafs, viz. To it we owe our knowledge of the diftant worlds in the heavens, and of the minute UruAure of all around us; the ineftimable advantage of abundant light in our dwellings and workfhops, the plenty of cheap, cleanly, and ii IntroduSiion. Its adaptability for all thefe ufes it owes to certain pecu- liarities: it is tenacious when foftened by heat, and capable when in that ftate of being moulded into any defired form ; it retains on cooling the fmooth and fhining furface which it acquires on being heated, fo that no coftly polifhing procefTes are required ; and it can be produced either wholly devoid of colour or tinted with any hue, and either opaque or tranfparent, without lofs of brilliancy.

Although it is not the objeft of this preface to enter into the fubjeft of the manufacture of glafs, it is necefTary that a few words fhould be faid as to its chemical compofition. Soluble glafs: A fimple filicate of potafh or foda, or of both thefe alkalies.

Crown glafs : A filicate of potafh and lime. Bottle glafs : Silicate of lime, foda, alumina, and iron. Common window glafs : Silicate of foda and lime, fometimes alfo of potafh. Plate glafs : Silica, foda or potafh, lime, and alumina.

Ordinary cryflal glafs : Silicate of potafh and lead. Flint glafs : Silicate of potafh and lead. Strafs : Silicate of potafh and lead, ftill richer in lead. Enamel : Silicate and ftannate, or antimoniate of potafh, or foda and lead. Lime, or Iron. Plate gla s - 72 Analyfes of ancient Roman glafs, by Richard Phillips, how the following refults: — Ox.

Iron, ganefe. Lime, nefia. Roman bafe? In France potafh obtained from fern appears to have been the alkali ufed throughout the middle ages. Although coloured glafs is made in very fmall quantities in proportion to uncoloured, this branch of the manufadhire has produced by far the greater proportion of the objefts which attradt by their beauty, and a few words may therefore fitly be faid upon the fubjeA of colouring glafs.

The various colours are ufually obtained : Yellow, from charcoal, antimony, or filver; a peculiar canary yellow from uranium. Red, from fub-oxide of copper and from gold ; brownifh red from protoxide of iron. Blue, from cobalt, alfoTrom iron. Amethyftine, from manganefe. Brown, from the fame. Black, from fcoria of iron or charcoal. The art of colouring glafs is, however, a very fubtle and difiicult one, much depending upon the fklU of the artificer in properly adjufting the degree of heat, and very fmall quantities of added ingredients wUl often greatly aflfed the refult Mr.

Bontemps, at the meeting of the Britifh Aflbciation at Birmingham, brought forward fome very extraordinary fads in connexion with the colouring powers of diflferent bodies. Percy's work on Metallurgy vol. Ure's " Difty. Bontemps was of opinion that, in the cafe of manganeie, light is the agent which produces change, and doubts whether any change in the oxidation of the metal will explain the photogenic efFeft.

He is difpofed to refer the chromatic changes in moft, if not in all cafes, rather to ome modifications of the compofing particles than to any chemical changes in the materials employed. As regards the manipulation which the produftion of objeAs of glafs requires, all that need be faid here is that the conftituent materials being mixed in due proportions are fufed together in earthen pots, and that the glafs, when in a proper ftate, is either caft, drawn out in rods, or blown ; the peculiar tenacity of the fubflance allowing the latter very peculiar procefs vi IntroduElion.

The glafs vefTel, after it is formed, has to go through the procefs of annealing, or flowly cooling, which greatly diminfhes its liability to fudden frafture. Annealing in oil is faid to increafe its toughnefs in a material degree. This praAice has of late been brought prominently before the notice of the public as if a new invention, but has really been known for fome time.

A ketch of the hiftory of glafs making may be conveniently divided into the following feftions : Glafs in Egypt, Phoenicia, and Greece. Glafs in Rome and the provinces of the Roman Empire. Glafs in Byzantium and the provinces of the Eaftem Empire. Glafs in India.

Glafs in China. Glafs in Italy. Glafs in France. Glafs in Spain. Glafs in Germany. Glafs in the Britifli Iflands. Glass in Egypt, Phcenicia, and Greece. The art of glafs making has not been, like thofe of pottery and of metallurgy, a pofTeffion of nearly all tribes of the human race in the earlieft infancy of their civilization.

Even the Chinefe did not poflefs it at any very early time, for about years b. Schliemann upon the fuppofed fite of Ilium. One confequence of this is that objeds, though produced in different countries, clofely refemble one another, e. It is therefore very often impoffible to afcribe objeAs to their place of manufafture with the confidence which can be felt in the cafe of arts more autochthonous than that of glafs, e.

It is but exceptionally that veffels of glafs bear infcriptions, and the affiftance which they afford towards the precife identification of objeds is therefore ufually wanting. The art was undoubtedly difcovered at a very early period ; one fo early that the true hiftory of the invention is no doubt loft to us ; Pliny and other ancient authors tell us that it was reported that Phoenician merchants returning from Egypt to Syria with a cargo of natron or foda, when cooking on the fandy beach under Mount Carmel, refted their pots on blocks of natron, and that glafs was produced in confequence of the heat of the fire caufing the alkali to form a flux for the filicious fand.

Sir H. Rawlinfon remarks upon this Herodotus, vol. But as M. Sauzay Merveilles de la Verrerie, p. As Mr. As the Venetians appear to have imported this fand in later times, it is probable that it fuppUed the filicious element of glais in unufual purity. Manners and Cuftoms ofthe Ancient Egyptians, vol. It was found many years ago at Thebes by Signor Drovetti, and given by him to Mrs.

Larking, the wife of J. Larking, Efq. Con- ful at Alexandria, and paHed from that family to the Slade colleftion. It'is formed of opaque blue glafs of a very bright and beaudflil colour as may be leen from a fractured part , but time has changed it externally to an olive green. Birch, has informed the writer that the hieroglyphics which are on the X IntroduBion. Sauzay p.

It has been fuggefted that the material is not artificial glafs, but obfidian, which abounds in Egypt and is occafionally to be found of this tint. Many coloured fragments are found in the tombs of Thebes, and a vitrified coating, ufually blue or green, was given to objefts formed of earthenware and even of fl:one or granite. It would feem that a high value was attached to coloured glafs at an early date, vefiels of fine opaque blue glafs of Egyptian manufadhire are found edged with a tolerably thick plating of gold ; glafs, if the Syrian, Greek, and Latin verfions of the Old Teflament are correft, is in Chap, xxvii.

Deville Hift. Martial alludes to this importation in the epigram Book xii. Hadrian, in a letter addrefled to the Conful Servianus, when enumerating the chief induftrial occupations of the inhabitants of Alexandria, includes among them that of glafs-blowing. That there was confiderable fimilarity between the glafs manufaftures of Egypt and of Phoenicia may be inferred, among other circumftances, from the accounts we have of immenfe ftatues and obelifks in both countries, faid to be of emerald, but no doubt of green glafs.

Herodotus Lib. Strabo, lib. According to Dr. Vincert Commerce and Navigation of the Ancients, vol. I, PL ]. Sir Humphry Davy's examinations how like refults ; he found copper in Egyptian blue and green paftes, but he fays that the tranfparent blue veflels found in Magna Grsecia owed their colour to cobalt. It will be more convenient, therefore, to fpeak of the procefles common to the two former countries when treating of Phoenician, and of thofe common to all three when fpeaking of Roman glafs.

Next in date to the earlier Egyptian examples mentioned above, would appear to be the vafe of tranfparent greenifli glais found in the north-weft palace«of Nineveh, and now in the Britifh Mufeum. On one fide of this is engraved a lion and a line of cuneiform charafters, in which is the name of Sargon, King of Aflyria, B. Fragments of coloured glafles were alfo found there, but our materials are too fcanty to enable us to form any decided opinion as to the extent to which the art was carried in AfTyria.

Many of the fpecimens difcovered by Mr. It ieems probable that the earlieft produfts of the induftry of Phoenicia in the art of glafs-making, are the coloured beads, such as No. Thefe coloured beads are ufually of opaque glafs ; they exhibit great variety of colour and pattern, and very different degrees of kill in mani- pulation. Boy]e Through and fomethmg like flowers.

They are Fanteeland to Coomaflie» p. VIIL, p. Labarte, indeed, coniiders it certain that manufactories of glafs veflels were eftablifhed, at a very remote period, in Sicily, the iflands of the Archipelago, and Etruria. Strabo, when writing imports. His memoir by J. Akerman, in Archaeo- words are fomewhat ambiguous, and it logia. Vol zzxiv. In the latter cafe, the difference of materials within reach could fcarcely fail to caufe appreciable diflimilarity in the produfts, even if the makers were colonifts of one and the fame original ftock.

Examination of the interior will, in many cafes, fhow that it is rough and bears the appearance of having been moulded upon a core of fand ; this, however, appears to be lefs clearly fb when the example is of a charaAeriftically Egyptian form and colouring, and has been found in Egypt It is, how- ever, difficult to find a fufficient number of fraftured fpecimens to allow a decided opinion to be formed on this point. By far the greater number of the vefTels of this clafs which are preferved in mufeums will be found to bear forms much more Greek than Egyptian, as that of the anachoe, with a trefoil lip and a handle.

By the Greeks and Etrufcans they were evidently much valued ; the amphorae have been occafionally found in tombs, furnifhed with a fland of gold, fimilar to that defcribed under No. Davy's analyfis, to cobalt fee awtf, p. They difler from, and appear to be earlier than the madrepore glafs, fragments of which are fo often found in Rome.

They are alfb faid to be found in Magna Gnecia. Another variety found in tombs in the fame diflridt is of blue and opaque glafs, with much gold leaf, the whole twifted together ; the mofl fre- quent form in which this kind of glafs has been found is that of a bottle feveral inches long and about one inch in diameter, without a neck, having probably had a mounting of gold. Both thefe varieties are poffibly the produft of Phenician workfhops, though they are ufually clafTed with Roman glafs.

Of the bowls, Nos. The Greeks of the period anterior to our era do not fcem to have much cultivated the art of glafs-making. As, how- ever, in the latter paflage the material is faid to be a tranfparent ftone bought in the apothecaries' fhops, it has been doubted whether glafs was really meant. Claudian's aflertion that Archimedes made a fphere of glafs at Syracufe Ep. March Phillips informed the writer, when calling his attention to this paflage, that he well remembers having remarked thefe decora- tions, and that he believes them to be of blue glafs.

An example of the employment of glafs in a like manner is indicated by the odd ftory which Pliny tells Nat. In the great marble lion difcovered by Mr. Glass in the Roman Empire. This prodigious variety feems to Alow that glafs-making was at that time carried on, not as now in large eftablilhments, which produce great quantities of articles identical in form and pattern, but by many artificers, each working on a fmall fcale.

This circumftance enables us to underftand why very pure and cryftalline glaft was, as Pliny tells us, more valued than any other kind. To produce glafs very pure and free from ftriae and bubbles, long-continued fufion in large veflels is required ; this the fyftem of working of the ancients did not allow, and their glafs is in confequence remarkable for the great abundance of bubbles and defefts which it contains.

Among thefe were fragments of at leaft ten or twelve veflels with white figures in relief on a blue ground, of XX IntroduSiion. It is not, however, furprifing that coloured and ornamental glafs ftiould have been very largely ufed among the Romans for all thofe domeftic purpofes in which a decorative eflfeft is defired, fuch as table fervices, veflels for toilet ufe, and the like, when it is remembered that porcelain was not then invented, and that Samian ware was the moft decorative kind of pottery which was at their command.

In order to appreciate fully the fkill of the glafs-makers of the Imperial period, it is neceflary to ftudy not only the entire veflels which have been preferved, but alfo the fragments which,, as has been ftated above, are found fo abundantly in the ruins of Roman cities. Pollio, m vita Gallicni. A certain number of ornamental vafes have been found at Pompeii and Herculaneum, and a very few, after centuries of wreck and devaftation, have furvived in the treafury of fome church or convent.

Levibus autem aridifque lignis coquitur addito Cyprio ac nitro mazime Ophirio con- tinuis fornacibus ut ces liquatur maf- foeque fiunt colore pingui nigricantes. Sidone quondam his officinis nobili fiquidem etiam fpecula ezcogi- taverit. Hoec fuit antiqua ratio vitri jam vero et in Voltumo amne Italioe harena alba nalcens itx M pafs : litore inter Cumas atque Litemum qua mol- liffima eft pila molaque teritur dein mlTcetur tribus partibus nitri pondere« vel menfura ac liqueata in alias fbmaces tranffunditur.

Ibi fit mafia quoe vocatur luunmonitrum atque hoec reco- quitur et fit vitrum purum ac mafia vitri candidi. Nat Hift. What is meant by " Ophirium " is not certainly known, but it may indicate a kind of nitre brought from Ophir. The lumps of glafs fo obtained, were, it would feem, brought to Rome, and there mixed with the colour- ing ingredients and re-melted. A paflage in Strabo's Geography Lib. The coloured and variegated glafs and glafs vefTels made in Rome feem to have been articles much exported ; for fragments have been found at Cimiez near Nice, at Nifmes, and in Lx ndon, of fhades and mixtures of colours, and of patterns fo precifely the fame as thofe found at Rome, as to render it almoft certain that they were all made at one and the fame place.

We may fee from Pliny's notice of glafs Nat. The queftion as to what the real murrhine was. Has often engaged the pens of claffical fcholars, but has never been iatisfaAorily folved. Some light may perhaps be obtained by comparing the defcription, which Pliny gives, with fpecimcns of ancient glafs among which we might fairly exped to difcover the imitation murrhine. The kind of glafs, however, which Pliny fpeaks of as moft highly efteemed in his time was the pure white, imitating cryfbd ; this it may have done, not only in colour and tranfparency, but alfo in thicknefs.

Pliny says, Maximus honos in candido tranflucentibus quam proxima cryftalli fimilitudine " Lib. It is poffible that thofe red or purple ihades were produced by heat, or other artificial means, as it is pradUfed fb largely at the prefent day in India and in Germany, both with onyxes and cryftals, and this may explain the line in Propertius, Book iv.

Maikelyne, Proc. There are many ftiades of the former as well as of the latter, particularly of tranfparent blue, and of opaque blue, yellow, and green. Of opaque colours many varieties appear to be due to the mixture of one colour with another. In any large colleftion of fragments, it would be eafy to find eight or ten varieties of opaque blue, ranging from lapis lazuli to turquoife or to lavender, and fix or feven of opaque green.

Of red the varieties are fewer ; the fineft is a crimfon red of very beautiful tint, and there are various gradations from this to a dull brick red. One variety forms the ground of a very good imitation of porphyry, and there is a dull femi- tranf- parent red which, when light is pafled through it, appears to be of a dull green hue. The analyfes of antique glafs of this period, given by Von Minutoli p. No attempt to determine the quantities of alkalies, it fhould feem, was made.

Opaque Red from the Villa of Tiberius at Capri. In grains, Silica Oxide of lead. In grains, Silica Oxide of copper - Do. In grains, Silica - - - grains. With thefe colours the Roman vitrarius worked, blending them in almoft every conceivable combination, fometimes, it muft be owned, with a rather gaudy and inharmonious efFedt. Thefe combinations of colour were efFcdbed in two ways : firft, by glafTes of two or more colours being combined fo as to traverfe the entire fubftance of the objeft ; and, fecondly, by the fuperpofition of the one colour on the other.

To the former clafs belong all thofe termed mofaic and mille fiori, where the procefs of manufafture was the prelimi- nary union, by heat, of threads of glafs into a rod, which when cut tranfverfely exhibited the fame pattern in every feftion. Such rods were often placed together fide by fide, and united by heat. This procefs was no doubt firft practifed in Egypt, and is never een in fuch perfedion as in objefts of a decidedly Egyptian charafter in defign or in colour, fuch as No.

Very beautiful pieces of ornament of an architeftural charader are met with, which probably once ferved as decorations of caikets or other fmall pieces of furniture, or of trinkets ; alfo tragic mafks, human faces, and birds. That fuch was the cafe is evident from a care- ful examination of fome of the pieces, as the work is evidently more minute than human powers could otherwife accompliih ; e. Although, as before noted, the fineft works of this defcrip- tion were made by Egyptian craftfmen, many of thofe found at Rome were probably made there, and fragments of the rods are occafionally difcovered.

The fame procefs was ufed in the manufaAure of objeds much larger than thofe mentioned above, and plates 4 to 6 inches fquare are met with. The execution of thefe is much leis minute and delicate ; the fubjeds ufually found on them are flowers, particularly poppies, ears of corn, and the like.

A very few examples have been noticed of a procefs of the fame nature, but fomewhat difllerently managed. In this the figure does not penetrate through the entire fubftance of the vefl! It came from the Townley IntroduEiion. A fomewhat fimilar refult was alfo obtained by difiFerent means, which it may be worth while to defcribe at more length, as it may afiFord a ufeful hint to artifts in mofaic.

The variously-coloured glaiTes were broken or cut into fragments of fuitable fizes and forms, placed together and a mafs of heated glafs poured or prefled on the back; thus the pieces were united and in fome degree blended together, and a figure was obtained with lefs of hardnefs than a mofaic, and more of the eflFeft of a painting. In the pofleffion of the. A common variety of mofaic glafs is that which was made by combining fquare fticks of various colours, the efFeft produced being that of teflelated work.

Small cups were made of this pattern, but only in very rare cafes of the more artiftic patterns. In the Louvre is a mafs of this teffelated pattern, which, being rounded at one end, feems to ihow that the fticks of which it is compofed were placed together in a fmall pot and there heated until they cohered. Although moft of the veflels of this mille fiori glafs were fmall, fome were made of large fize ; a fragment in the pofleflion of the writer muft have formed part of a difti not lefs than twenty inches in diameter.

The flab. Another variety of glafs, evidently much ufed, is that in which tranfparent brown glafs is fo mixed with opaque white and blue as to refemble onyx. This was fometimes done with great fuccefs, and very perfeA imitations of the natural ftone were produced ; Plate III. What has been noticed above as poflibly imitation murrhine p. Imitations of porphyry, of ferpentine, and of granite are alfo met with ; but the ufe of thefe feems to have been almoft confined to pavements, and the decoration of walls, for which purposes the onyx-glafs was likewife employed.

Veflels are found compofed either of bands fo placed in feftions as to "prefent a plaited pattern, as No. Blue threads are occafionally intermixed, and feveral varieties of pattern may be found ; but this branch of the art does not appear to have been carried by the Romans to anything like the perfedlion to which it was afterwards brought by the Venetians. Pieces of gold leaf are fometimes introduced between the layers of glafs, and thefe are frequently feen combined with the bands of colour which have juft been mentioned.

To the fecond branch of decoration by colour, viz. The few entire vafes of this kind which have been preferred are remarkable for their exquifite beauty, and the exifting fragments ufually exhibit traces of good ftyle. Though the Portland vafe was found in a fepulchre believed to have been that of Alexander Severus, yet, like the.

They all feem to belong to a comparatively early date. The Portland vafe is too well known to make any defcrip- tion of it neceflary, but the following remarks upon it by Jofiah Wedgwood will be read with intereft ; He, in , wrote to Sir Wm.

That hoUownefs of the rocks and depth of fliade in other parts, pro- duced by cutting down to the dark ground, and to which it owes no fmall part of its beauty, would all be wanting and a difgufting flatnefs appear in their ftead. It is here that I am moft fenfible of my weaknefs, and that I muft of neceffity call in the engraver to my afliftance in order to produce the higheft finifhed and clofeft copies we are capable of making.

But in IntroduEiion. It meafures 10 in. The amphora at Naples meafures i ft. The ground is blue and the figures white. It is well engraved in Richardfon's Studies of Ornamental Defign. The Auldjo vafe, a part of which is or was in pofleffion of Mr. It alfo has been engraved by Richardfon. Deville, " Hift. The fame procefs was ufed in producing large tablets, employed, no doubt, for various decorative purpofes.

The ground of thefe cameo glafTes is moft commonly tranfparent blue often lined with opaque white to throw up the colour , but fomedmes opaque blue, purple, or dark brown. The fuperimpofed layer which is fculptured is generally opaque white. A very few fpecimens have been met with in which feveral colours are employed. The attached portions form in fome inftances infcrip- tions, as on a cup found at Strafburg, which bears the name of the Emperor Maximianus A'.

Mark at Venice. This is of glafs of a greenifh hue ; on the upper part is reprefented, in relief, the chafe of a lion by two men on horfeback accompanied by dogs ; the coftume appears to be rather Byzantine than Roman, and the ftyle very bad. The figures are very much undercut. The lower part has four rows of circles united to the veflcl at thofe points alone where the circles touch each other.

All the other examples have the lower portion covered in like manner by a network of circles ftanding nearly a quarter of an inch from the body of the cup. An example conneded with the fpecimens juft defcribed is the cup belonging to Baron Lionel de Rothfchild;' though externally of an opaque greenifh colour, it is by tranfmitted light of a deep red, the colouring matter, Mr.

Franks obferves, being probably copper, but the glafs has not been brought to the ftate in which it becomes ruby. On the outfide, in very high relief, are figures of Bacchus with vines and panthers, fome portions being hollow from within, others fixed on the exterior. The changeability of colour may remind us of the " calices verficolores," which Hadrian fent to Servianus.

Veflels are alfo found on which coloured enamels have been dafhed in fpots entering lightly within theTurface No. The above-mentioned is a coarfe and imperfed fort of enamelling, and it was probably executed by means of enamel liquified by heat, not reduced to a fine powder and applied cold, the only means by which delicate execution can be obtained.

It is, however, unlikely that when fo near an approach had been made to the art of enamell- ing, the lafl ftep was not taken by artifls fb ingenious and fo defirous of novelty as were the Roman, and feveral objefts are extant, or have been defcribed, which bear traces of the procefs. Onefpecimen is in the Slade Colledion No.

In the Louvre is a fmall cup of green tranfparent glafs, about three inches in diameter, faid to have been found at Nifmes ; on this figures of animals and foliage drawn in yellow and red are difcernible. Von Minutoli p. This fhould now be in the imperial coUedion at Vienna.

Boldetti p. It is not at all furprifing that few enamel paintings have been preferved, when it is remembered that almofl all Roman glafs is found buried in damp places, and much corroded on the furface, and that enamel colours corrode more readily than ordinary glafs on IntroduEiion. Thefe are fmall cups, 3 in. On the latter are the letters DVB. The colours are vitrified and flightly in relief; green, blue, and brown may be diftinguifhed. They were found with Roman bronze vefi!

Some hundreds of thefe have come down to us, in confequence of the Chriftians of thofe times having been in the habit of affixing the difks, which formed the bottoms of the vefi! They ofier a feries of moft curious and interefi:ing reprefentations, and have been well illuftrated by Padre Garrucci in his work, entitled Vetri Ornati di Figure in Oro Roma, Padre Garrucci is difpofed to attribute them to the 'period between a. When found entire, which is rarely the cafe, the veffels are in the form of hallow pateras or bowls.

The procefs of making them feems to have varied : in fome, like the medallion No. In a few inftances, fmall portions of the ornaments or figures have colour added ; red, lake, blue, white, and two hades of green were thus employed ; of this No. Some of the veffels were decorated with fmall medallions, each of which forms a portion only of the fubjed reprefented, fo that feveral were required to complete the defign.

In thefe the gold de ign is ufually backed with coloured glafs, either blue, green, violet, or crimfon. The remains of a hallow di h found near Cologne publi hed in the Jahrbiicher des Vereins von Alterthumftreunden in Rheinlande, heft xxxvi. In other fpecimens, fuch as the fragment No. Such fpecimens muft have been, however, peculiarly liable to injury.

Enamelled decoration was alfo occa ionally added. A very curious example was found fome years ago at Cologne, in this, the real cup, about 3 in. This was lately in the pofleffion of Herr Difch of Cologne, The threads of glafs are in this inilance not cut. Many examples of this procefs are to be met with in which the drawing and execution are far fuperior to thofe of the majority ; the firft in correftnefs, the fecond in fine and careful hading, in which crofs-hatching is fometimes feen Nos.

Many of them are pro- bably the work of the clever forgers of the Italian renaiflance, who caught the fpirit of the antique fo ably, that the objefts which they produced in feveral claffes of art have often deceived the moft acute connoifTeurs.

Many of them were certainly in exiftence two or three centuries ago ; Buonaruotti Oflerva- zioni fopra alcuni frammenti di vetro has engraved feveral of thefe, in the opinion of Padre Garrucci, fpurious objefts, as genuine. That the artifts of circa 1 in Italy were quite capable of executing fuch work may be feen by many extant fpecimens, of which No.

Cameo glafs, and that later kind in which portions are attached to the ground at points, only ought in ftriAnefs to have been fpoken of under this head, but reafbns of convenience have led to the arrangement adopted. A very fimilar cup was found in the cemetery of Calixtus, near Rome. Several cups or fragments of them have been found, on which arc figures of gladiators with their names ; on one fuch found at Chavannes in La Vendee are the names of Proculus, Columbus and Spiculus, mentioned by Suetonius as having lived in the time of Caligula and Nero.

Thefe cups were blown in a mould, not finiflied by any procefs of cutting or grinding, and evidently cheap common wares. Some beautiful examples of thefe procefi! An elegant long-necked bottle, in the Britifh Mufeum, feems to have been blown within a mould made by means of a cage of wire; this procefs has given to its furface little rounded elevations fuch as we fee in the glafs, which is now fo common, and often called " kinkled.

I is a very pleafing example of Roman glafs-cutting. Work of this kind is ufually bad both in ftyle and in execution, and evidently belongs to a late date ; a frag- ment of a large patera or hallow bowl in the Vereinigte Sammlungen at Munich has engraved on it the labarum and the letters Alpha and Omega ; but perhaps the moft important fpecimen extant is a itula of dark violet glafs in the treafury of St.

Mark, at Venice, on which a bacchanalian dance is repre- fented. The manufacture of fuch fpecimens was probably continued under the Byzantine empire. In the year fome very remarkable examples of this kind of work were found at Porto, and have been figured and defcribed by Cavaliere de RofTi Bull, di Archeol.

Thefe Cava- liere de Roffi is of opinion probably date from the fourth century. See Lib. Diatretum xl IntroduElion. The figures are engraved on the under fide, fo that the upper remains fmooth and fit for ufe, while the figures feen from above have the appearance of being in relief. De RofTi feems to be of opinion that they were fimply plates for domeilic ufe, but as glafs veflels were certainly ufed in the early cen- turies of the Chriflian era for euchariftic purpofes, it feems quite poflible that they were patens.

One fingular method of ornamentation, which does not come under either of the clafTes mentioned above, is exhibited in a drinking cup in the Britifh Mufeum. A filver cup was made, the fides of which are pierced with numerous oval apertures, blue glafs was then blown into the infide fo as to protrude flightly through the openings, the effeft is fimilar to that of a filver cup fludded with fapphires. Glafs was alfo much ufed at Rome in the manufaAure of artificial gems ; and the flory of the jeweller who cheated the Emprefs Salonina, wife of Gallienus, with fome falfe gems fhows to what perfedion the art of imitation was brought Imitations of emeralds, beryls, and other gems are frequently found.

Copies in glafs of intaglios and cameos are alfo met with in great quantity ; many hundreds may even now be purchafed at Rome, and they are found wherever any confiderable Roman town exifled. As they were apparently made for thofe whofe means did not enable them to purchafe works in real flones, both were probably produced, not by engraving, but by pref- fure in a mould when the material was in a flate of femifufion, in the manner formerly practifed with fo much fuccefs by Taflie; the cameos, however, were often finiflied with the wheel.

Notwithftanding, however, the great number of IntroduBion. King Antique Gems, p. This is, perhaps, too fweeping, undoubtedly vaft quantities are modern, but certainly many are antique, although no trace of the fetting may remain.

Cameos of glafs are fometimes met with of large fize ; a fine fragment in the Britifh Mufeum in blue opaque pafte, imitating lapis lazuli, has the upper half of a human figure, which, if perfedt, would be about a foot high, and even larger examples have been noticed; No. Circular medallions, with a head of Medufa in cameo on each, and of nearly 2 in. In Mus. Veronenfe, worn, p. One peculiar method of employing glafs in the manufafture of perfbnal ornaments requires fpecial mention : that, namely, in which the furface was hollowed in the form of a bird, a leaf, a lizard, or the like, and a very fine fillet of gold made to follow the outline and to mark out the features and members of the objeft reprefented ; enamels of various colours were then inferted between the lines of gold, and the whole fub- mitted to the aftion of the mufiie furnace.

Thefe are fome- times executed with the moft exquifite delicacy. The ground is almoft always blue tranfparent glafs, backed with opaque white to throw up the colour. In a few inftances there is no enamel, but the whole of the incavo is filled with gold.

The fpecimens in which enamel is ufed are peculiarly interefting, as furniftiing early examples of that procefs of enamelling which we are accuftomed to call cloifonne, and which was practifed with fo much fuccefs in Byzantium in the eleventh and twelfth centuries. Many other fmall articles were made of glafs, as fpoons, children's toys in the form of animals and birds v. Glafs alfo played a very important part in the decoration of a fumptuous Roman houfe ; thick pieces of coloured glafs added to the brilliancy of the pavement, either in irregular fragments, or in larger flabs, fo fhaped as to form parts of a pattern.

L, Fig. The room to which this pavement belonged appears to have formed part of a private houfe of earlier date than the temple which was built by Hadrian. Von Minutoli alfo mentions p. In the pofleflion of the writer are fome pieces of black, white, and orange opaque glafe, which were found on the fite of the palace of the Caefars at Rome ; they are about half an inch thick, and have been fliaped fo as to form parts of a pattern.

The pieces ufed in pavements are not only of fingle colours but imitate porphyry, ferpentine, and various granites. The walls of rooms were decorated in a like manner, and thoufands of fpecimens of the pieces which made up fuch decorations may be found in the hands of the Roman dealers in antiquities. Examples, how- ever, in which the original collocation of the pieces has been preferved or can be recovered are of the greateft rarity, all that.

As, however, thefe wall pieces were generally ground, fo as to fit exadly, the Romans muft have fpent upon thefe decorations an amount which to us, accuftomed to ornament our walls with paper or plafter, would appear furprifing. Such decorations are, however, alluded to by ancient authors in terms denoting that they were confidered as marks of great luxury ; as Vopifcus Jin vitd Firmi, cap. The earlieft recorded inftance of fuch decoration is that of the theatre conftruded by M.

Scaurus during his edilefliip in the firft century B. Pliny Hift. They were found in the ruins of a villa near Rome, which is known to have belonged to Lucius Aurelius Verus ob. Another variety of this fyftem of decorating walls, in which higher artiftic powers were called into ufe, was that in which not merely patterns, but fubjefts containing forms both of animals and men, were reprefented by means of coloured marbles and glafs; very few examples of this defcription of work have come down to us ; by far the moft important formed part of the decorations of the hall of the Conful Junius BafTus, afterwards the church of S.

Andrea in Catabarbara, in Rome, and now deftroyed. Ciampini Vet. This is about 4 ft. Rhe- nifti meafure high, by about 4 ft. The upper part is chiefly compofed of pieces of varioufly coloured marbles, fome portions only being of blue and green glafs ; in the lower part glafs is more freely ufed. The piece of drapery has a broad border on which are fmall figures of Egyptian deities and priefls ; thefe are entirely compofed of glafs, and that reprefenting the garments is of the kind known as mofaic glafs.

Horace therefore paid no extrava- gant compliment to the Bandufian fountain when he faid that it was more bright than glafs. Engravings of thefe may be be found in numerous antiquarian works, and Mons. Sometimes thefe vefTels were of large dimenfions, globular urns a foot high, and of correfponding diameter, are not unfrequently met with. Glazed pottery was not much in ufe, and as the finer fpeci- mens of ornamental glafs took on the table of an opulent Roman the place which porcelain does upon ours, fo common glafs no doubt ferved for many purpofes for which we employ conunon earthenware.

Glafs was ufed in Rome in the time of Martial ob. In Juvenal Sat. The greater part of the entire veflels, which are preferved in our mufeums, have been found in fepulchres, twenty or thirty veflels of various fizes and forms being fometimes found in one tomb. For one purpofe the Romans ufed glafs much lefs than we do, viz. A fmall vafe, figured by M. He ftates that it was perfeftly like cryftal, and that analyfis ihewed the prefence of oxide of lead and a little tin, if the latter were prefent at all, it muft have been in a very minute quantity as oxide of tin renders glafs white and opaque.

The vafe in queftion, in faft, approached modern flint glafs in compofltion. There can be no doubt that glafs was ufed by the Romans in windows, though by no means excluflvely, mica, alabaflier, and fliells having been alfo ufed. Glafs, in flat pieces, fuch as might be employed for windows, has been found in the ruins of Roman houfes, both in England and Italy, and in the houfe of lapidcm, Hift. When the window openings were large, as was the cafe in baiilicas and other public build- ings, and even in houfes, the pieces of glafs were, doubtlefs, fixed in pierced flabs of marble or in frames of wood.

The pieces of glafs, or other tranfparent fubftance fo employed, were, we may infer, called pecula. The ufe of glafs for this purpofe appears to have been familiar to Pliny, as he fays that fpecula were invented at Sidon. Specularii are mentioned in the Codex Lib. D, They probably were the glaziers of the time, working, how- ever, in other materials as well as in glafs , fpecular bearing the meaning of window. Sciences, in which an analyiis is given '"In caldarium fuum latis fpecu- of plates of glafs found at Herculaneum, laribus diem admiierat.

Their glafs was fo full of bubbles and ftriae, and, fo far as we know, their power of pro- ducing and poliihing large furfaces of glafs fo limited, that on the whole it would appear more probable that their mirrors were metallic. A fragment of a circular plate of glafs foliated with a fheet of lead is faid to have been recently difcovered at Lillebonne among Roman remains.

The faA that mirrors could be made by the application of a coating of metal to glafs was, as will be ihown hereafter, known for centuries before fuch mirrors fuperfeded thofe made of polifhed metal plates. To make a really good glafs mirror two things are requifite, very pure glafs, free from bubbles and Arise, and a good method of applying the metal ; and it was apparently not until the middle of the fixteenth century that both thefe procefles were perfected.

Undue ftrefs has been laid on the pafTage in Pliny Nat. The Romans pofleffed fome imperfed knowledge of the ufe of magnifying glaftes. Seneca ftates Quseft. Perhaps lenfes of glafs were made, but if fo it is difficult to account for Seneca's having mentioned the glafs G. A lens of glafs or cryftal is faid to have been found at Niniveh, but h is altogether uncertain what was its date, as the mounds which mark the fite of that city have been ufed as burying places for many centuries down to comparatively modern times.

Another lens is faid to have been found at Pompeii, but Mr. King Ancient Gems, p. The paiTage in Pliny Nat Hift. Theophraftus cap. The effed of a prifm in dividing the folar ray was known to Seneca, for he fays Qusefl:. Sebaftian AA. My heavenly work a fragile globe difplays ; An aged Syracufan, by his fkill. Arranges poles, laws, harmony at will, To ftars a fecret fpring gives motion true.

The parts with fteadinefs their path purfue, A zodiac framed by hand receives the fun. Which through the year proceeds his courfe to run, And Cynthia feigned is feen each month to trace The orbit o'er and ihow again her face. Audacious art, the world with pleafure rolls. The human mind celeftial orbs controls. Why at Salmoneus thunder wonder feel? All Nature's plan thofe fingers can reveal. Fuit tamen faber qui fecit fialam vi- tream quse non fxaugebatuTy admiilus ergo Csefarem eft cum suo munere deinde fecit reporrigere Cxiari et illam in pavimento projecit, Csfar non pote validius quam expaverit at iUe fuA tulit fialam de terra conliia erat tan- quam vafum seneum.

Deinde martio- lum de iinu protulit et fialam otio belie correxity hoc fa6lo putabat fe caelum Jovistenere. Utique poftquam illc dixit, Numquid alius fcit hanc con- dituramvitreorum? Vide modo. Poft- quam negavit, juffit ilium Csefar de- collari, quia enim si fcitum eflet aurum pro luto haberemus. It is probable that thefe dories originated from an exag- gerated report of a difcovcry of a procefs by which the brit- tlenefs of glafs was much diminifhed, as is the cafe by that of annealing in oil, already referred to, which has lately excited a good deal of attention.

We have very little pofitive knowledge of the ftate of the art of glafs-making at Rome, during the ages which witneffed and followed the decline and fall of the Empire ; whatever veffels may have been produced by the workihops were no doubt made by the fame proceffes as thofe of earlier times, and are probably fcarcely diftinguiihable from them, except by imperfeAion of manufaAure.

A fimilar example in the Britiih Mufeum, which has preferved its handles, is of the fame coarfe blue glafs, and quite as clumfily made. It exhibits a form clofely refembling that of the cups which are frequently reprefentcd on the fepulchral memorials of the Chriftians of the earlier ages, and which there is every reafon to believe were intended to reprefent the chalices ufed in the Communion. A fmall golden chalice of this form was found fome years ago at Gourdon, near Chalon fur Saonc, France, and larger examples once exifted at Monza.

Pope Zephirinus a. Praflfede, portions of the talc with which the apertures were filled flill adhere to their fides, no glafs remains which can be attributed to a very early date.. At St. Sophia, however, where the ancient method of glazing has been preferved, fome of the plates of glafs, 7 to 8 in. The ufe of coloured glafs in windows does not appear to be mentioned before the inflance in the Lib.

Franc, lib. Apud Ducange, art. Iv IS faid to have decorated the windows of St. Peter's and the Lateran with glafs of diverfe colours, but it is very probable that it was a very early praAice. Glass in Byzantium and the Eastern Empire. Labarte has pointed out, from the adjacent quarter in which the glafs-houfes were iituated. Glafs was alfo made at Theflalonica. Ip the middle of the tenth century, the Emperor Romanus II.

Ivi IntroduEiion. Britifh Mufeum Nos. The Byzantine painters and fculp- tors feem to have followed claflical models with more or lefs bad tafte and feeblenefs, until the fervour of the iconoclaftic Emperors brought about a temporary paralyfis of all art and the emigration of many of its praftitioners.

When in the middle of the ninth century the arts were again more largely pradtifed, ancient traditions had in a great meafure been loft, and the new ftyle which we know as Byzantine, into which the older had previoufly been in fome degree merging, became almoft exclufively prevalent Something of the fame kind probably happened as regards the manufacture of glafs, but examples which we can confidently aflign to the poft-iconoclaftic period are almoft wholly wanting.

Mark's at Venice, which, as they differ much in charader from any other kind of glafs productions, and in fome cafes bear Greek infcriptions on their mountings, are probably fpecimens of Byzantine work. They are fuppofed, together with many other objefts in the fame treafury, to have been part of the plunder of Conftantinople, when it was taken by the Crufaders in a.

Five of thefe are cups and two are ftiallow bafins ; the glafs in all is greenifti, very thick and with many fmall bubbles ; all have been cut with the wheel. One of the cups, 1 2 inches wide and 6 high, is of a fomewhat elegant form ; it has two handles, but is otherwife without ornament. Ivii Another cup has the furface fo cut away that fmall cones are left ftanding up, and another has circles formed in the fame manner ; a third has a very rude figure of a leopard couchant, with outlines and fpots left ftanding up in the like faihion.

Thefe figures are evidently free copies of antique originals, and are clofely allied in point of ftyle to the ivory boxes of Byzantine origin with mythological fubjeds which may be feen in various coUedions and church treafuries. The new Facebook Timeline is arguably the most drastic layout overhaul in the history of Facebook, causing lots of confusion and disorientation for several users.

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