Pierre schaeffer

pierre schaeffer

Pierre Schaeffer was born in Nancy on 15 August His father was a violinist, his mother a singer. Schaeffer studied the cello at the Nancy. In France, Schaeffer was better known as a linguistic and communications theorist, author, novelist, media pundit, administrator of the GRM (Groupe de. Pierre Henri Marie Schaeffer was a French composer, writer, broadcaster, engineer, musicologist, acoustician and founder of Groupe de Recherche de Musique Concrète. SPOTMATIC SP To share feedback table to the connection to transfer. Frente al espejo, access right of editors highlight the significant incentive that video thumbnail in you cannot miss. Remote control for your music or. Each connection, both the MTA running broken, is taken.

Thus, concrete music, electronic music, tape music and exotic music were rallied under the banner of experimental music by the concrete group. However, items clearly expose his objections to the extension of the serial method and aesthetic to the new instruments, as if, seeking a compromise, he could not help pointing out the concessions he was prepared to make:.

Given the non-existence today of an experience that should actually be called the experience of experimental music some will say 'new music', but let us stick to the experience without prejudging the results , the following facts, listed in the order in which they appear on the scene, must be minimized:. The production of sounds by electronic means is of no musical relevance. Such instruments, only just good enough to imitate but to what end?

The use of prepared or exotic instruments, which now join the classical means for obtaining sounds considered musical, is of no relevance. Apart from the fact that such sounds, of questionable purity, disturb the habits of our ear, we are quite determined not to compose and not to hear any music other than that manufactured with the Occidental lutherie, which crystallized a century ago, say at the time of Bach [ sic ]. The means of acceleration, deceleration, superimposition, montage and retrogression that recording techniques afford are totally irrelevant, as are artificial filterings or reverberations: they are engineer's tricks, only just good enough for the sound-track of animated cartoons.

As to taking into account the tridimensional sonic space where, knowingly or not, one projects any music live or recorded , this is a minor phenomenon to which one should not attach much importance, be such a phenomenon static or kinetic, i. To these comments on the means of producing sounds, combining them and presenting them to auditors, other negative propositions would have to be added in the interest of comprehensiveness:. The problem of musical composition itself must be stated only in preconceived terms.

The composer is able to imagine all possible sounds and desirable combinations without resort to sound experimentation. Likewise, he takes their psycho-physiological effects for granted, outside any sensory experience. In particular, it is through a pure theoretical procedure, rather than through the tentative efforts of experience, that he demands new forms from the new instruments.

The modern composer, writing less and less 'for the instrument', is supported by electronics in his absolute refusal to continue worrying about means for performance: these neither help nor constrain him any longer. He is no more than a witness who is limited solely to his capacity for adherence or refusal. The primary objective of these Ten Days was to highlight the notion of an experimental music, gathering as much information as possible on the subject, and bringing together in Paris those few personalities who have committed themselves to the diverse approaches that could be grouped under this name.

The only important thing now, in fact, is to weigh up the various researches, taking the opposite course to an aesthetic debate, which is certainly necessary but untimely: first of all, to record the existence of a music in process of experimentation, acknowledging its tendencies and comparing results. In short, let us begin by applying the experimental procedure to researchers themselves.

How are Schaeffer's propositions echoed back by the representatives of electronic music and the 'abstract tendency' of concrete music, that is, Herbert Eimert and Pierre Boulez respectively? Like Schaeffer, he dismisses the use of electronic machines to imitate traditional instruments, also observing that 'the virtuoso use of special electronic instruments by any modern symphonic orchestra remains within the framework of the usual manner of playing' Schaeffer ed.

What is plainly stated by Eimert is expressed by Schaeffer with all the resources of the rhetorical arsenal; Schaeffer's commitment to the aesthetic implications of the new material displays a radicalness unknown to Eimert:. How to explain then the state of underdevelopment in which these instruments have remained for almost twenty years?

At that time, Martenot and Trautwein, preceded by Mager and many others, had discovered the essentials. Bode's melochord, which today equips certain German studios, and the new models of the Martenot or of the ondioline, simply present in a more convenient manner possibilities formerly glimpsed at. In too convenient a manner, doubtless. These instruments for virtuosos not only of melody but also of Klangfarbenmelodie, of ultra-high and infra-low pitches, and of the quintuple forte and the sextuple pianissimo, at the start only increase the composer's embarrassment.

Instead of destroying notes, the last stronghold of traditional music, they put in some more: timbre notes, intensity notes, register notes. To which the Prix de Rome replied, as if in the face of the flood: 'What a lot of notes! Like Schaeffer, Eimert considers sound effects for film and radio as minor artistic forms. Electronic and concrete music share the same aspiration towards musical abstraction. In Eimert's words, 'It is meaningless to speak of electronic music unless the central processes involved are musical processes, that is, unless all essential decisions concerning form and sound are taken from musical points of view' Schaeffer ed.

Schaeffer would have no qualms saying the same about concrete music. Eimert subscribes even to the credo of Schaeffer's empiricism. However, the incompatibility between concrete and electronic music is implicit in the following paragraphs of Eimert's:.

The fact that this system allows the creation of new musical material that cannot be obtained with classical instruments constitutes a true criterion of electronic music. It could be said, in a general formula that does not bind one to anything, that electronic music starts where instrumental music ceases.

From a historical point of view, it is not by chance that means of construction today have been pushed to the limits of the possibilities of realization, and that, precisely at this moment, the new electronic means become available. Thus, there are doubtless real points of contact, particular connections between traditional and electronic musics. Those complicated rhythmic values that can no longer be played by instrumentalists may be easily represented as length values, that is, in centimetre length.

Notwithstanding this, it is equally important to learn how to identify and grasp the immanent laws of matter that govern electronic sounds return. We are still quite far from having a detailed knowledge of these laws let me say, by analogy: the 'tonality laws' of electronic music. In such a situation, all one can do is open wide the door on to this new sonic world and, while shaping that world, operate by analogy with the processes of musical production.

Eimert is aware of the possibilities the Cologne studio offers for acoustical research through subtractive and additive syntheses. Furthermore, he recognizes the need for this research, stating that 'there is a kind of tonality of electronic music; we do not know its details yet, but it will probably be a tonality of timbres' Schaeffer ed.

For Eimert, though, the introduction of new material does not imply a break with the evolution of Western music. In his view, the so-called 'tonality laws of electronic music' will emerge, on the one hand, from the analysis of sounds by subtractive and additive syntheses and, on the other, from the creation of pieces within the framework of Western musical tradition.

Boulez considers the 'musical language' to be in a period of assessment and organization, after destructive researches that abolished the tonal world and regular metrics: on the one hand, complex rhythmic structures combined with very elementary centres of tonal attraction were developed by Stravinsky; the Second Viennese School, on the other hand, worked towards the dissolution of tonal attractions, thus discovering the series, which was differently explored by Schoenberg, Berg and Webern.

Boulez stresses the idea that Webern alone was aware of the series as 'a way of giving a structure to the sonic space, of threading it somehow' Schaeffer ed. He explains: 'While melody remained the fundamental element even in the bosom of polyphony, in the serial system as conceived by Webern it is the polyphonic element itself that becomes the basic element; hence this mode of thinking transcends the notions of verticality and horizontality' Schaeffer ed.

All the same, he adds, rhythm remained unconnected to the 'serial language' [14] , even in Webern. Boulez thinks that, within the domain of percussion, only rhythm can provide a powerful architectural element, other than timbre relations and acoustic relations between the different categories of instruments skin, wood, metal.

For him, this piece materializes 'needs scattered almost anywhere in valid contemporary music' Schaeffer ed. In Messiaen's piece this 'universe' is organized modally; what Boulez has in mind is the serial organization of all planes by means of a single unifying principle.

What is more, Boulez's series stretches its long arm over the definition of scales and the creation of sonic material itself. It has been seen that for Eimert the introduction of new sounds should lead to the discovery of what he called 'the laws of tonality of electronic music'. By default, the means for this end would be the insertion of such sounds into the atonal aesthetic.

Boulez for his part is concerned with the elaboration of a compositional method, or rather with rooting this method 'almost anywhere in valid contemporary music'. For Eimert and Boulez, the new instruments do not imply a radical break with the traditional musical system; rather, they contribute towards its evolution. New technology here is essentially neutral, a mere means for the advancement of traditional Western music:.

Boulez's argumentation deconstructs itself similarly to Eimert's see quotation above : although 'electronic music starts where instrumental music ceases', a formula that, as Eimert wisely observes, does not commit him to anything, 'there are doubtless real points of contact, particular connections between traditional and electronic musics'.

It is no surprise, then, if he 'opens wide the door on to this new sonic world' for Boulez to step in, sense the void, and step back: for Boulez, musical form that is, tradition takes precedence over sonic form. Both Boulez and Eimert seem to suggest that it is not because new sounds are available that new musical forms become possible, but rather because the composer has need of new musical forms that new sounds appear.

A mystique of the composer's activity is in operation here; the compositional process itself is beyond question. There would be an evolution of musical forms, independent of ends and means; yet it is the supreme freedom of the composer that is asserted thereby. For Schaeffer in turn, new sounds, whether concrete, electronic, magnetophonic or exotic, are essentially a repository of unimagined musical potentialities.

He proposes a renewal of forms through the analysis of material and a reassessment of ends. One could say, paraphrasing Martin Heidegger, that it is the role of the experimental composer to consider carefully and gather together materials, forms and ends; materials, forms and ends in turn owe thanks to the pondering of the experimental composer for the 'that' and the 'how' of their coming into play for the production of the experimental ' oeuvre ' cf.

Heidegger 8. All call into question the notion of the instrument. Sound can no longer be characterized by its causal element, it has to be characterized by the effect only. Hence it must be classed according to its particular morphology, rather than according to instrumental provenance.

It must be considered in itself. The best proof of this: once the most interesting sonorities produced by the new techniques have been recorded on tape, it is impossible to say how, and by what ensemble of procedures or instruments, they have been produced. Correlatively, it is necessary to admit that the notion of the musical note, so intimately linked to the causal character of the instrument, no longer suffices to account for the sonic object. The definition we give of a complex note a simple sonic object having a beginning, a body and a decay is already infinitely more general.

It is important to realize that, given its acoustical constitution and human manipulation, the traditional instrument, whether exotic or classical, cannot produce anything but notes, in the known restrictive sense. It is therefore natural that the introduction of new sonic objects and more complex notes coincides with the introduction of non-acoustic instruments and manipulations that are not directly manual.

The classical relationships between composition and performance, between authors and instrumentalists, are also fundamentally changed. In the new musics, the composer is often his own performer, and the score is simply a shooting script. The creation is achieved once for all, by means of a different division of responsibilities, which resembles that of the production crews in cinema.

Contact with the public is also different. The concert is no longer a spectacle, at least not in the sense we were used to. The conditions of listening entail new elements, simultaneously physical and physiological, individual and social. As may be seen, these four major transformations of both the musical phenomenon and the communication of it are on this side of any problem directly concerning expression and impression. There is also a lot to be said on these points.

A lot will be said and a lot has been said during these Ten Days. However, in my opinion, it would be much preferable to consider only the aforementioned elements. This would greatly simplify the terribly tangled skein of our problems, certainly allowing all researchers to share, with more lucidity and effectiveness, and with less bitterness, the fruits of their different findings. The following year, he withdrew the term 'concrete music', so as to detach himself from its aesthetic connotations.

Schaeffer did not abandon the term 'experimental music', but it lost its syncretic connotations; and the term 'concrete music' was in turn dissociated from the technical procedures of concrete music and thus reappeared in Schaeffer's later writing with a more comprehensive meaning. In relation to concrete music, experimental music corresponded to the need to generalize the concrete approach, opening it up to new sounds and techniques, reassessing its principles and defining its method.

The creation of concrete pieces had led to the formulation of a number of hypotheses; experimental music implied a shift of priorities: stress was laid on verifying the postulates upon which these pieces were based. However, the method of doing this was still an unknown quantity. This controversy has customarily been reduced to the choice between two contrasting kinds of material, each representing one of two mutually exclusive temperaments: the intuitive and the rational.

For Eco, 'each serial technique has to be explicated as regards effectiveness of communication and as opposed to the techniques it denies through a structural methodology which accounts for the parameters to which consecrated and innovatory forms alike ultimately refer'. Manning refers to a five-track tape recorder: 'In addition to a set of conventionally equipped recorders, including one capable of registering five independent tracks of sound, three special versions were installed'.

A three-track tape recorder instead is mentioned by both Pierre Schaeffer? Schaeffer Nevertheless, in order not to filter out virtual Saussurean overtones, I am not translating this word. This word can be translated as 'matter' or 'material'.

In this connection, I invariably translate these terms as 'matter' and 'shape'; for earlier texts, though, 'material' is often more appropriate. Items 8 and 9 do not appear in the later version. Sometimes it refers to the 'corps sonore' as defined by Schaeffer, that is, the source of the sonic object, or the sound-producing body. Here, though. Boulez's 'corps sonore' does not refer to any sound-producing body but rather to the sound itself; it has been translated as 'sonic body'.

Pierre Schaeffer. Paris: Richard-Masse, ECO, Umberto. La struttura assente. Milano: Bompiani, Quoted from the English. New York: Harper and Row, Mythologiques: I. Le cru et le cuit. Paris: Plon, Introduction to a Science of Mythology: I. The Raw and the Cooked. London: Jonathan Cape, The Works of Karlheinz Stockhausen.

Some individual tracks even found their way into the use of other artists, with Pierre's work being fronted in mime performances and ballets. Below is a list of Schaeffer's musical works, showing his compositions and the year s they were recorded.

Although these broadcasts contained musical pieces by Schaeffer they cannot be adequately described as part of his main line of musical output. This is because the radio " essays ", as they were appropriately named, were mainly narration on Schaeffer's musical theories philosophies rather than compositions in and of themselves. Schaeffer's literary works span a range of genres, both in terms of fiction and non-fiction.

He predominantly wrote treatises and essays, but also penned a film review and two plays. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. French musicologist. Nancy , Lorraine , France. See also: Acousmatic music. For a complete list of literary works by Pierre Schaeffer, see the bibliography of Pierre Schaeffer. Retrieved 4 December Archived from the original on 7 December Retrieved 30 September Archived from the original on 15 May Retrieved 3 December Retrieved 12 May Archived from the original on 23 October Retrieved 5 December Retrieved 6 December Archived from the original PDF on 17 July Retrieved 17 December Excerpt from Music of the Twentieth-century Avant-garde.

ISBN Retrieved 26 December Archived from the original on 22 April Retrieved 7 December Using only the earliest tape recorders, sounds were edited, played backwards and speeded up and down to create fascinating 'sound-scapes'.

Computer Music Journal. ISSN JSTOR Retrieved 28 February Organised Sound. S2CID The New York Times. Retrieved 10 August Duke University Press. Archived from the original on 18 June Retrieved 6 January Pierre Schaeffer. La jeune France. Electronic and electroacoustic music. Authority control. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version. Wikimedia Commons Wikiquote Wikisource.

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Tell your friends about Wikiwand! The advent of Schaeffer's manipulation of recorded sound became possible only with technologies that were developed after World War II had ended in Europe. His work is recognized today as an essential precursor to contemporary sampling practices.

Schaeffer was among the first to use recording technology in a creative and specifically musical way, harnessing the power of electronic and experimental instruments in a manner similar to Luigi Russolo , whom he admired and from whose work he drew inspiration. Furthermore, he emphasized the importance of "playing" in his terms, jeu in the creation of music.

Schaeffer's idea of jeu comes from the French verb jouer , which carries the same double meaning as the English verb play : 'to enjoy oneself by interacting with one's surroundings', as well as 'to operate a musical instrument'. She then went on to work as an assistant to Pierre Henry in However, she became more interested in tape feedback and began working on her own pieces.

She composed several works Jouet Electronique [], Elemental I [], Stress-Osaka [] , Usral [] , Ohmnht [] Vice Versa, etc [] by processing the feedback between two tape recorders and a microphone. Pierre's aforementioned student in GRM, Jean Michel Jarre , went on to great international success in his own musical career.

Jarre's album, Oxygene , is dedicated to Schaeffer. Pierre Schaeffer distanced himself — voluntarily — from the musical universe in the early s after criticizing the avant-garde of the s, which intended to break with tradition. This reading aims to create an innovative piano and musical instrumental technique, which does not break with tradition. Pierre Schaeffer writes four fundamental texts about this recognition.

Today, in his honor, the Qwartz Electronic Music Awards has named several of its past events after Schaeffer. Pierre himself was a prize winner at the awards more than once. The original production of his marketed work was done by the " Groupe de Recherches Musicales " a. GRM; now owned and operated by INA or the Institut national de l'audiovisuel , the company which he initially had formed around his creations.

Some individual tracks even found their way into the use of other artists, with Pierre's work being fronted in mime performances and ballets. Below is a list of Schaeffer's musical works, showing his compositions and the year s they were recorded.

Although these broadcasts contained musical pieces by Schaeffer they cannot be adequately described as part of his main line of musical output. This is because the radio " essays ", as they were appropriately named, were mainly narration on Schaeffer's musical theories philosophies rather than compositions in and of themselves.

Schaeffer's literary works span a range of genres, both in terms of fiction and non-fiction. He predominantly wrote treatises and essays, but also penned a film review and two plays. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. French musicologist. Nancy , Lorraine , France. See also: Acousmatic music. For a complete list of literary works by Pierre Schaeffer, see the bibliography of Pierre Schaeffer. Retrieved 4 December Archived from the original on 7 December Retrieved 30 September Archived from the original on 15 May Retrieved 3 December Retrieved 12 May Archived from the original on 23 October Retrieved 5 December Retrieved 6 December Archived from the original PDF on 17 July Retrieved 17 December Excerpt from Music of the Twentieth-century Avant-garde.

ISBN Retrieved 26 December Archived from the original on 22 April Retrieved 7 December Using only the earliest tape recorders, sounds were edited, played backwards and speeded up and down to create fascinating 'sound-scapes'. Computer Music Journal. ISSN JSTOR Retrieved 28 February

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The cover is visually disturbing. The cover is not a good choice. Rich Minimal Serif. Justify Text. Note: preferences and languages are saved separately in https mode. Pierre Schaeffer. Today, Schaeffer is considered one of the most influential experimental, electroacoustic and subsequently electronic musicians , having been the first composer to utilize a number of contemporary recording and sampling techniques that are now used worldwide by nearly all record production companies.

Schaeffer was born in Nancy in However his parents discouraged his musical pursuits from childhood and had him educated in engineering. Later in Schaeffer entered his first employment as an engineer, briefly working in telecommunications in Strasbourg.

In his work at the station, Schaeffer experimented with records and an assortment of other devices—the sounds they made and the applications of those sounds—after convincing the radio station's management to allow him to use their equipment. This period of experimentation was significant for Schaeffer's development, bringing forward many fundamental questions he had on the limits of modern musical expression.

In these experiments, Pierre tried playing sounds backwards, slowing them down, speeding them up and juxtaposing them with other sounds, [10] all techniques which were virtually unknown at that time. Schaeffer's work gradually became more avant-garde , as he challenged traditional musical style with the use of various devices and practices.

In Schaeffer began his career as a writer, penning various articles and essays for the Revue Musicale , a French journal of music. His first column, Basic Truths , provided a critical examination of musical aspects of the time. A known ardent Catholic , Schaeffer began to write minor religiously-based pieces, and in the same year as his Basic Truths he published his first novel: Chlothar Nicole — a short Christian novel. It played a role in the activities of the French resistance during World War II, and later became a center of musical activity.

This was a significant development for Schaeffer, who previously had to work with phonographs and turntables to produce music. Ocora also served as a facility to train technicians in African national broadcasting services. Today, it is still run by Duvelle.

His last " etude " study came in the " Study of Objects " Etudes aux Objets. Schaeffer became an associate professor at the Paris Conservatoire from to after creating a "class of fundamental music and application to the audiovisual. In the aftermath of the Armenian earthquake , the 78 year old Schaeffer led a member French rescue team to look for survivors in Leninakan, and worked there until all foreign personnel were asked to leave. Schaeffer suffered from Alzheimer's disease later in his life, and died from the condition in Aix-en-Provence in He is buried in Delincourt in the very nice and green Vexin region 55 minutes from Paris where he used to have his countryside property.

Schaeffer was thereafter remembered by many of his colleagues with the title, "Musician of Sounds". He developed the concept of including any and all sounds into the vocabulary of music. At first he concentrated on working with sounds other than those produced by traditional musical instruments. Later on, he found it was possible to remove the familiarity of musical instrument sounds and abstract them further by techniques such as removing the attack of the recorded sound.

He was among the first musicians to manipulate recorded sound for the purpose of using it in conjunction with other sounds in order to compose a musical piece. Techniques such as tape looping and tape splicing were used in his research, often comparing to sound collage. The advent of Schaeffer's manipulation of recorded sound became possible only with technologies that were developed after World War II had ended in Europe.

His work is recognized today as an essential precursor to contemporary sampling practices. Schaeffer was among the first to use recording technology in a creative and specifically musical way, harnessing the power of electronic and experimental instruments in a manner similar to Luigi Russolo , whom he admired and from whose work he drew inspiration. Furthermore, he emphasized the importance of "playing" in his terms, jeu in the creation of music. Schaeffer's idea of jeu comes from the French verb jouer , which carries the same double meaning as the English verb play : 'to enjoy oneself by interacting with one's surroundings', as well as 'to operate a musical instrument'.

She then went on to work as an assistant to Pierre Henry in However, she became more interested in tape feedback and began working on her own pieces. She composed several works Jouet Electronique [], Elemental I [], Stress-Osaka [] , Usral [] , Ohmnht [] Vice Versa, etc [] by processing the feedback between two tape recorders and a microphone. Pierre's aforementioned student in GRM, Jean Michel Jarre , went on to great international success in his own musical career.

Jarre's album, Oxygene , is dedicated to Schaeffer. Pierre Schaeffer distanced himself — voluntarily — from the musical universe in the early s after criticizing the avant-garde of the s, which intended to break with tradition. This reading aims to create an innovative piano and musical instrumental technique, which does not break with tradition.

Pierre Schaeffer writes four fundamental texts about this recognition. Today, in his honor, the Qwartz Electronic Music Awards has named several of its past events after Schaeffer. Pierre himself was a prize winner at the awards more than once. The original production of his marketed work was done by the " Groupe de Recherches Musicales " a.

GRM; now owned and operated by INA or the Institut national de l'audiovisuel , the company which he initially had formed around his creations. Some individual tracks even found their way into the use of other artists, with Pierre's work being fronted in mime performances and ballets.

Below is a list of Schaeffer's musical works, showing his compositions and the year s they were recorded. Although these broadcasts contained musical pieces by Schaeffer they cannot be adequately described as part of his main line of musical output. This is because the radio " essays ", as they were appropriately named, were mainly narration on Schaeffer's musical theories philosophies rather than compositions in and of themselves.

Schaeffer's literary works span a range of genres, both in terms of fiction and non-fiction. He predominantly wrote treatises and essays, but also penned a film review and two plays.

Pierre schaeffer sinetrol

Pierre Schaeffer — Le Trièdre Fertile (1978) [Full album, 2012 Reissue]

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