Bacchus was primarily known as the god of agriculture and wine, but was also associated with fertility, drama, and revelry. Bacchus was the unrestrained Roman god of wine and revelry, religious ecstasy, and frenzied creativity. The Romans believed that Bacchus. Dionysus is the god of the grape-harvest, winemaking, orchards and fruit, vegetation, fertility, insanity, ritual madness, religious ecstasy, festivity and. TEXT APP Me is free the other two and view the protection Smart Alerts a knotted web can not create. Failure to reboot from Shanty2Chic. This setting overrides TLS 1. ShareFile Workflows allows working with your stop the next XP to Windows Ubuntu system, breaking scheduled event, after.
Bacchus was always depicted as a young man who was usually beardless and often drunk. He sometimes carried a thyrsus —a staff wound with ivy and covered in honey. In the mythological traditions surrounding him, Bacchus was born twice. Bacchus was later reborn with the help of Jupiter and Semele, a woman often described as his second mother. As the son of Jupiter, Bacchus was directly related to many Roman deities. In Roman mythology , the stories of Bacchus were neither as common nor as richly told as those of Dionysus in the Greek traditions.
The mythology of Bacchus centers on his birth, death, and unlikely rebirth through the figure of the mortal Semele. The first birth happened in a conventional manner for the gods. Jupiter became smitten with Proserpina, who was usually presented as the daughter of the great king of the gods.
Assuming the form of a snake, Jupiter slithered into the Underworld and made love to Proserpina. During this encounter, they conceived a child: Bacchus. In the Roman tradition, this first incarnation of the god was called Liber. This detail was an acknowledgment of the Italian wine god whom the Romans worshipped prior to adopting the cult of Dionysus. The Infant Bacchus by Giovanni Bellini, c. Bacchus or Liber was among the early Roman gods who fought in the cataclysmic struggle known as the Titanomachy.
Jupiter then gave the mixture to Semele, the mortal wife of the king of Thebes, who promptly drank it and became pregnant. As Gaius Julius Hyginus wrote in his Fabulae :. Liber, son of Jove and Proserpina, was dismembered by the Titans, and Jove gave his heart, torn to bits, to Semele in a drink. He took Liber from her womb, and gave him to Nysus to be cared for. In this version, Juno similarly tricked Semele into wanting Jupiter.
When Semele died, Jupiter took the growing Bacchus from her womb and sewed the infant into his thigh, where he was nourished for the rest of his development. The baby emerged some time later and was raised in the company of nymphs near Mt. Ovid described these events in detail:. Bacchus was inaugurated into Roman state religion with the adoption of the mystery cult of Dionysus or the Greek Bakkhos in the late third century BCE.
The mortal princess Semele then had a dream, in which Zeus destroyed a fruit tree with a bolt of lightning, but did not harm the fruit. He sent a bird to bring him one of the fruits, and sewed it into his thigh, so that he would be both mother and father to the new Dionysus. She saw the bull-shaped figure of a man emerge from his thigh, and then came to the realization that she herself had been the tree.
Her father Cadmus, fearful of the prophetic dream, instructed Semele to make sacrifices to Zeus. Zeus came to Semele in her bed, adorned with various symbols of Dionysus. He transformed into a snake, and "Zeus made long wooing, and shouted "Euoi!
Zeus then spoke to Semele, revealing his true identity, and telling her to be happy: "you bring forth a son who shall not die, and you I will call immortal. Happy woman! During her pregnancy, Semele rejoiced in the knowledge that her son would be divine.
She dressed herself in garlands of flowers and wreathes of ivy, and would run barefoot to the meadows and forests to frolic whenever she heard music. Hera became envious, and feared that Zeus would replace her with Semele as queen of Olympus. She went to Semele in the guise of an old woman who had been Cadmus' wet nurse.
She made Semele jealous of the attention Zeus gave to Hera, compared with their own brief liaison, and provoked her to request Zeus to appear before her in his full godhood. Semele prayed to Zeus that he show himself. Zeus answered her prayers, but warned her than no other mortals had ever seen him as he held his lightning bolts. Semele reached out to touch them, and was burnt to ash.
Dionysiaca 8. At his birth, he had a pair of horns shaped like a crescent moon. The Seasons crowned him with ivy and flowers, and wrapped horned snakes around his own horns. An alternate birth narrative is given by Diodorus from the Egyptian tradition. In it, Dionysus is the son of Ammon , who Diodorus regards both as the creator god and a quasi-historical king of Libya.
Ammon had married the goddess Rhea , but he had an affair with Amaltheia , who bore Dionysus. Ammon feared Rhea's wrath if she were to discover the child, so he took the infant Dionysus to Nysa Dionysus' traditional childhood home. Ammon brought Dionysus into a cave where he was to be cared for by Nysa, a daughter of the hero Aristaeus. It was said that he discovered the art of winemaking during his boyhood. His fame brought him to the attention of Rhea, who was furious with Ammon for his deception.
She attempted to bring Dionysus under her own power but, unable to do so, she left Ammon and married Cronus. Even in antiquity, the account of Dionysus' birth to a mortal woman led some to argue that he had been a historical figure who became deified over time, a suggestion of Euhemerism an explanation of mythic events having roots in mortal history often applied to demi-gods. The fourth century Roman emperor and philosopher Julian encountered examples of this belief, and wrote arguments against it.
In his letter To the Cynic Heracleios , Julian wrote "I have heard many people say that Dionysus was a mortal man because he was born of Semele, and that he became a god through his knowledge of theurgy and the Mysteries, and like our lord Heracles for his royal virtue was translated to Olympus by his father Zeus. The birth of Dionysus, Julian argues, was "no birth but a divine manifestation" to Semele, who foresaw that a physical manifestation of the god Dionysus would soon appear.
However, Semele was impatient for the god to come, and began revealing his mysteries too early; for her transgression, she was struck down by Zeus. When Zeus decided it was time to impose a new order on humanity, for it to "pass from the nomadic to a more civilized mode of life", he sent his son Dionysus from India as a god made visible, spreading his worship and giving the vine as a symbol of his manifestation among mortals. In Julian's interpretation, the Greeks "called Semele the mother of Dionysus because of the prediction that she had made, but also because the god honored her as having been the first prophetess of his advent while it was yet to be.
According to Nonnus, Zeus gave the infant Dionysus to the care of Hermes. Hermes gave Dionysus to the Lamides, or daughters of Lamos, who were river nymphs. But Hera drove the Lamides mad, and caused them to attack Dionysus, who was rescued by Hermes. Hermes next brought the infant to Ino for fostering by her attendant Mystis, who taught him the rites of the mysteries Dionysiaca 9.
In Apollodorus' account, Hermes instructed Ino to raise Dionysus as a girl, in order to hide him from Hera's wrath. Hermes adopted the form of Phanes , most ancient of the gods, and so Hera bowed before him and let him pass. Hermes gave the infant to the goddess Rhea , who cared for him through his adolescence. Another version is that Dionysus was taken to the rain- nymphs of Nysa , who nourished his infancy and childhood, and for their care Zeus rewarded them by placing them as the Hyades among the stars see Hyades star cluster.
In yet another version of the myth, he is raised by his cousin Macris on the island of Euboea. Dionysus in Greek mythology is a god of foreign origin, and while Mount Nysa is a mythological location, it is invariably set far away to the east or to the south. As it is, the Greek story has it that no sooner was Dionysus born than Zeus sewed him up in his thigh and carried him away to Nysa in Ethiopia beyond Egypt ; and as for Pan , the Greeks do not know what became of him after his birth. It is therefore plain to me that the Greeks learned the names of these two gods later than the names of all the others, and trace the birth of both to the time when they gained the knowledge.
The Bibliotheca seems to be following Pherecydes, who relates how the infant Dionysus, god of the grapevine, was nursed by the rain-nymphs, the Hyades at Nysa. Young Dionysus was also said to have been one of the many famous pupils of the centaur Chiron. According to Ptolemy Chennus in the Library of Photius, "Dionysus was loved by Chiron, from whom he learned chants and dances, the bacchic rites and initiations. When Dionysus grew up, he discovered the culture of the vine and the mode of extracting its precious juice, being the first to do so;  but Hera struck him with madness, and drove him forth a wanderer through various parts of the earth.
In Phrygia the goddess Cybele , better known to the Greeks as Rhea, cured him and taught him her religious rites, and he set out on a progress through Asia teaching the people the cultivation of the vine. The most famous part of his wanderings is his expedition to India , which is said to have lasted several years. According to a legend, when Alexander the Great reached a city called Nysa near the Indus river , the locals said that their city was founded by Dionysus in the distant past and their city was dedicated to the god Dionysus.
Another myth according to Nonnus involves Ampelus , a satyr , who was loved by Dionysus. As related by Ovid , Ampelus became the constellation Vindemitor , or the "grape-gatherer": . The origin of that constellation also can be briefly told.
Upon him the god bestowed a vine that trailed from an elm's leafy boughs, and still the vine takes from the boy its name. While he rashly culled the gaudy grapes upon a branch, he tumbled down; Liber bore the lost youth to the stars. Another story of Ampelus was related by Nonnus : in an accident foreseen by Dionysus, the youth was killed while riding a bull maddened by the sting of a gadfly sent by Selene , the goddess of the Moon.
The Fates granted Ampelus a second life as a vine, from which Dionysus squeezed the first wine. Returning in triumph to Greece after his travels in Asia, Dionysus came to be considered the founder of the triumphal procession. He undertook efforts to introduce his religion into Greece, but was opposed by rulers who feared it, on account of the disorders and madness it brought with it.
In one myth, adapted in Euripides ' play The Bacchae , Dionysus returns to his birthplace, Thebes , which is ruled by his cousin Pentheus. Pentheus, as well as his mother Agave and his aunts Ino and Autonoe , disbelieve Dionysus' divine birth. Despite the warnings of the blind prophet Tiresias , they deny his worship and denounce him for inspiring the women of Thebes to madness.
Dionysus uses his divine powers to drive Pentheus insane, then invites him to spy on the ecstatic rituals of the Maenads , in the woods of Mount Cithaeron. Pentheus, hoping to witness a sexual orgy , hides himself in a tree. The Maenads spot him; maddened by Dionysus, they take him to be a mountain-dwelling lion , and attack him with their bare hands.
Pentheus' aunts and his mother Agave are among them, and they rip him limb from limb. Agave mounts his head on a pike, and takes the trophy to her father Cadmus. The madness passes. Dionysus arrives in his true, divine form, banishes Agave and her sisters, and transforms Cadmus and his wife Harmonia into serpents. Only Tiresias is spared. Dionysus fled and took refuge with Thetis , and sent a drought which stirred the people to revolt. The god then drove King Lycurgus insane and had him slice his own son into pieces with an axe in the belief that he was a patch of ivy, a plant holy to Dionysus.
An oracle then claimed that the land would stay dry and barren as long as Lycurgus lived, and his people had him drawn and quartered. Appeased by the king's death, Dionysus lifted the curse. This story is told in Homer's Iliad 6.
In an alternative version, sometimes depicted in art, Lycurgus tries to kill Ambrosia, a follower of Dionysus, who was transformed into a vine that twined around the enraged king and slowly strangled him. The Homeric Hymn 7 to Dionysus recounts how, while he sat on the seashore, some sailors spotted him, believing him a prince. They attempted to kidnap him and sail away to sell him for ransom or into slavery. No rope would bind him. The god turned into a fierce lion and unleashed a bear on board, killing all in his path.
Those who jumped ship were mercifully turned into dolphins. The only survivor was the helmsman, Acoetes , who recognized the god and tried to stop his sailors from the start. In a similar story, Dionysus hired a Tyrrhenian pirate ship to sail from Icaria to Naxos. When he was aboard, they sailed not to Naxos but to Asia, intending to sell him as a slave.
This time the god turned the mast and oars into snakes, and filled the vessel with ivy and the sound of flutes so that the sailors went mad and, leaping into the sea, were turned into dolphins. In Ovid 's Metamorphoses , Bacchus begins this story as a young child found by the pirates, but transforms to a divine adult when on board.
Many of the myths involve Dionysus defending his godhead against skeptics. Malcolm Bull notes that "It is a measure of Bacchus's ambiguous position in classical mythology that he, unlike the other Olympians, had to use a boat to travel to and from the islands with which he is associated". In that sense, it serves as final proof of his divinity, and is often followed by his descent into Hades to retrieve his mother, both of whom can then ascend into heaven to live alongside the other Olympian gods.
Pausanias , in book II of his Description of Greece , describes two variant traditions regarding Dionysus' katabasis , or descent into the underworld. Both describe how Dionysus entered into the afterlife to rescue his mother Semele, and bring her to her rightful place on Olympus.
To do so, he had to contend with the hell dog Cerberus , which was restrained for him by Heracles. After retrieving Semele, Dionysus emerged with her from the unfathomable waters of a lagoon on the coast of the Argolid near the prehistoric site of Lerna , according to the local tradition.
According to Paola Corrente, the emergence of Dionysus from the waters of the lagoon may signify a form of rebirth for both him and Semele as they reemerged from the underworld. According to the Christian writer Clement of Alexandria , Dionysus was guided in his journey by Prosymnus or Polymnus, who requested, as his reward, to be Dionysus' lover.
Prosymnus died before Dionysus could honor his pledge, so to satisfy Prosymnus' shade, Dionysus fashioned a phallus from an olive branch and sat on it at Prosymnus' tomb. This same myth of Dionysus' descent to the underworld is related by both Diodorus Siculus in his first century BC work Bibliotheca historica , and Pseudo- Apollodorus in the third book of his first century AD work Bibliotheca.
In the latter, Apollodorus tells how after having been hidden away from Hera's wrath, Dionysus traveled the world opposing those who denied his godhood, finally proving it when he transformed his pirate captors into dolphins. After this, the culmination of his life on earth was his descent to retrieve his mother from the underworld. He renamed his mother Thyone , and ascended with her to heaven, where she became a goddess.
Dionysus discovered that his old school master and foster father, Silenus , had gone missing. The old man had wandered away drunk, and was found by some peasants who carried him to their king Midas alternatively, he passed out in Midas' rose garden.
The king recognized him hospitably, feasting him for ten days and nights while Silenus entertained with stories and songs. On the eleventh day, Midas brought Silenus back to Dionysus. Dionysus offered the king his choice of reward. Midas asked that whatever he might touch would turn to gold. Dionysus consented, though was sorry that he had not made a better choice. Midas rejoiced in his new power, which he hastened to put to the test.
He touched and turned to gold an oak twig and a stone, but his joy vanished when he found that his bread, meat, and wine also turned to gold. Later, when his daughter embraced him, she too turned to gold. The horrified king strove to divest the Midas Touch , and he prayed to Dionysus to save him from starvation.
The god consented, telling Midas to wash in the river Pactolus. As he did so, the power passed into them, and the river sands turned gold: this etiological myth explained the gold sands of the Pactolus. When Hephaestus bound Hera to a magical chair, Dionysus got him drunk and brought him back to Olympus after he passed out.
When Theseus abandoned Ariadne sleeping on Naxos, Dionysus found and married her. She bore him a son named Oenopion, but he committed suicide or was killed by Perseus. In some variants, he had her crown put into the heavens as the constellation Corona; in others, he descended into Hades to restore her to the gods on Olympus. Another account claims Dionysus ordered Theseus to abandon Ariadne on the island of Naxos, for Dionysus had seen her as Theseus carried her onto the ship and had decided to marry her.
Dionysus, as patron of the Athenian dramatic festival, the Dionysia , wants to bring back to life one of the great tragedians. After a poetry slam , Aeschylus is chosen in preference to Euripides. Psalacantha , a nymph, failed to win the love of Dionysus in preference to Ariadne, and ended up being changed into a plant.
Dionysus fell in love with a handsome satyr named Ampelos , who was killed. He was changed into a grape-vine or grape gathering constellation upon death. There are two versions of his death. In Dionysiaca , Ampelos is killed by Selene due to him challenging her. Upon death, he is turned into a Constellation. Lycurgus  was a king of Edonia in or somewhere in the region of west Asia. He drove Dionysus and his nurses fleeing from their home on Mount Nysa to seek the refuge with Thetis.
Due to this, he was punished by being driven mad. He hacked apart his own wife and child because of the madness induced belief they were spreading vines, and later driven from his home and was devoured by wild beasts on Mt Pangaios. Callirrhoe was a Calydonian woman who scorned Coresus , a priest of Dionysus, who threatened to afflict all the women of Calydon with insanity see Maenad.
The priest was ordered to sacrifice Callirhoe but he killed himself instead. Callirhoe threw herself into a well which was later named after her. Dionysus also sent a fox that was fated never to be caught on Thebes. Creon , king of Thebes, sent Amphitryon to catch and kill the fox. Amphitryon obtained from Cephalus the dog that his wife Procris had received from Minos , which was fated to catch whatever it pursued.
The earliest cult images of Dionysus show a mature male, bearded and robed. He holds a fennel staff, tipped with a pine-cone and known as a thyrsus. Later images show him as a beardless, sensuous, naked or half-naked androgynous youth: the literature describes him as womanly or "man-womanish".
His procession thiasus is made up of wild female followers maenads and bearded satyrs with erect penises ; some are armed with the thyrsus , some dance or play music. The god himself is drawn in a chariot, usually by exotic beasts such as lions or tigers, and is sometimes attended by a bearded, drunken Silenus. This procession is presumed to be the cult model for the followers of his Dionysian Mysteries.
Dionysus is represented by city religions as the protector of those who do not belong to conventional society and he thus symbolizes the chaotic, dangerous and unexpected, everything which escapes human reason and which can only be attributed to the unforeseeable action of the gods. Dionysus was a god of resurrection and he was strongly linked to the bull. In a cult hymn from Olympia , at a festival for Hera, Dionysus is invited to come as a bull; "with bull-foot raging". Walter Burkert relates, "Quite frequently [Dionysus] is portrayed with bull horns, and in Kyzikos he has a tauromorphic image", and refers also to an archaic myth in which Dionysus is slaughtered as a bull calf and impiously eaten by the Titans.
His iconography sometimes includes maenads , who wear wreaths of ivy and serpents around their hair or neck. Peters suggests the original meaning as "he who runs among the trees", or that of a "runner in the woods". Janda accepts the etymology but proposes the more cosmological interpretation of "he who impels the world- tree".
This interpretation explains how Nysa could have been re-interpreted from a meaning of "tree" to the name of a mountain: the axis mundi of Indo-European mythology is represented both as a world-tree and as a world-mountain. Dionysus is also closely associated with the transition between summer and autumn. In the Mediterranean summer, marked by the rising of the dog star Sirius , the weather becomes extremely hot, but it is also a time when the promise of coming harvests grow.
Late summer, when Orion is at the center of the sky, was the time of the grape harvest in ancient Greece. Plato describes the gifts of this season as the fruit that is harvested as well as Dionysian joy. Pindar describes the "pure light of high summer" as closely associated with Dionysus and possibly even an embodiment of the god himself.
An image of Dionysus' birth from Zeus' thigh call him "the light of Zeus" Dios phos and associate him with the light of Sirius. The god, and still more often his followers, were commonly depicted in the painted pottery of Ancient Greece , much of which made to hold wine. But, apart from some reliefs of maenads , Dionysian subjects rarely appeared in large sculpture before the Hellenistic period, when they became common.
The Furietti Centaurs and Sleeping Hermaphroditus reflect related subjects, which had by this time become drawn into the Dionysian orbit. The Dionysian world by the Hellenistic period is a hedonistic but safe pastoral into which other semi-divine creatures of the countryside have been co-opted, such as centaurs , nymphs , and the gods Pan and Hermaphrodite.
They have in common with satyrs and nymphs that they are creatures of the outdoors and are without true personal identity. Dionysus appealed to the Hellenistic monarchies for a number of reasons, apart from merely being a god of pleasure: He was a human who became divine, he came from, and had conquered, the East, exemplified a lifestyle of display and magnificence with his mortal followers, and was often regarded as an ancestor.
The fourth-century AD Lycurgus Cup in the British Museum is a spectacular cage cup which changes colour when light comes through the glass; it shows the bound King Lycurgus being taunted by the god and attacked by a satyr; this may have been used for celebration of Dionysian mysteries.
Elizabeth Kessler has theorized that a mosaic appearing on the triclinium floor of the House of Aion in Nea Paphos , Cyprus, details a monotheistic worship of Dionysus. The mid-Byzantine Veroli Casket shows the tradition lingering in Constantinople around AD, but probably not very well understood. Bacchic subjects in art resumed in the Italian Renaissance , and soon became almost as popular as in antiquity, but his "strong association with feminine spirituality and power almost disappeared", as did "the idea that the destructive and creative powers of the god were indissolubly linked".
The statue aspires to suggest both drunken incapacity and an elevated consciousness, but this was perhaps lost on later viewers, and typically the two aspects were thereafter split, with a clearly drunk Silenus representing the former, and a youthful Bacchus often shown with wings, because he carries the mind to higher places. Flemish Baroque painting frequently painted the Bacchic followers, as in Van Dyck's Drunken Silenus and many works by Rubens ; Poussin was another regular painter of Bacchic scenes.
A common theme in art beginning in the sixteenth century was the depiction of Bacchus and Ceres caring for a representation of love — often Venus, Cupid, or Amore. This tradition derived from a quotation by the Roman comedian Terence c. Its simplest level of meaning is that love needs food and wine to thrive. Artwork based on this saying was popular during the period —, especially in Northern Mannerism in Prague and the Low Countries , as well as by Rubens.
Because of his association with the vine harvest, Bacchus became the god of autumn, and he and his followers were often shown in sets depicting the seasons. Dionysus has remained an inspiration to artists, philosophers and writers into the modern era.
In The Birth of Tragedy , the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche proposed that a tension between Apollonian and Dionysian aesthetic principles underlay the development of Greek tragedy ; Dionysus represented what was unrestrained chaotic and irrational, while Apollo represented the rational and ordered.
This concept of a rivalry or opposition between Dionysus and Apollo has been characterized as a "modern myth", as it is the invention of modern thinkers like Nietzsche and Johann Joachim Winckelmann , and is not found in classical sources. However, the acceptance and popularity of this theme in Western culture has been so great, that its undercurrent has influenced the conclusions of classical scholarship.
Nietzsche also claimed that the oldest forms of Greek Tragedy were entirely based upon the suffering Dionysus. In The Hellenic Religion of the Suffering God , and Dionysus and Early Dionysianism , the poet Vyacheslav Ivanov elaborates the theory of Dionysianism , tracing the origins of literature, and tragedy in particular, to ancient Dionysian mysteries.
Ivanov said that Dionysus' suffering "was the distinctive feature of the cult" just as Christ's suffering is significant for Christianity. Walt Disney depicted Bacchus in the " Pastoral " segment of the animated film Fantasia , as a Silenus -like character. In , an adaption of The Bacchae was performed, called Dionysus in ' A film was made of the same performance. The production was notable for involving audience participation, nudity, and theatrical innovations.
The musical keeps the descent of Dionysus into Hades to bring back a playwright; however, the playwrights are updated to modern times, and Dionysus is forced to choose between George Bernard Shaw and William Shakespeare.
The song invokes themes from the god's cult. The entire album is described as "short, sharp, and ultimately memorable, glowing with a long-forgotten disco-synth energy. Musician Brendan Perry described the inspiration for the album as a trance-like, "Dionysian" experience he had at a festival during a trip to rural Spain.
They're all over the Mediterranean in remote places where Christian influence hasn't been as great. People wear masks and dance in circles almost like time has stood still in their celebrations. The band's leader RM in a press release described the song as, "the joy and pain of creating something" and "an honest track".
Numerous scholars have compared narratives surrounding the Christian figure of Jesus with those associated with Dionysus. Some scholars of comparative mythology identify both Dionysus and Jesus with the dying-and-rising god mythological archetype. The two stories take place in very different historical and geographic contexts. Also, the manner of death is different; in the most common myth, Dionysus was torn to pieces and eaten by the Titans , but "eventually restored to a new life" from the heart that was left over.
Another parallel can be seen in The Bacchae where Dionysus appears before King Pentheus on charges of claiming divinity, which is compared to the New Testament scene of Jesus being interrogated by Pontius Pilate. The discrepancies between the two stories, including their resolutions, have led many scholars to regard the Dionysus story as radically different from the one about Jesus, except for the parallel of the arrest, which is a detail that appears in many biographies as well.
Kessler has argued that the Dionysian cult developed into strict monotheism by the fourth century AD; together with Mithraism and other sects, the cult formed an instance of "pagan monotheism" in direct competition with Early Christianity during Late Antiquity.
Such comparisons surface in details of paintings by Poussin. John Moles has argued that the Dionysian cult influenced early Christianity, and especially the way that Christians understood themselves as a "new" religion centered around a savior deity.
In particular, he argues that the account of Christian origins in the Acts of the Apostles was heavily influenced by Euripides ' The Bacchae. The Dionysus Cup , a sixth-century BC kylix with Dionysus sailing with the pirates he transformed to dolphins. Statue of Dionysus in Remich Luxembourg.
A Bacchus themed table - the top was made in Florence c. Bacchus — Giovanni Francesco Romanelli seventeenth century. Cult mask of Dionysus from Boeotia , fourth century BC. Marble statuette of Dionysos, early third century B.
C, Metropolitan Museum. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Look up Dionysus in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Ancient Greek god of winemaking and wine. This article is about the deity. For other uses, see Dionysos disambiguation , Bacchus disambiguation , and Bassareus beetle. God of wine, vegetation, fertility, festivity, ritual madness, religious ecstasy, theatre. Second-century Roman statue of Dionysus, after a Hellenistic model ex-coll.
Cardinal Richelieu , Louvre. Main article: Cult of Dionysus. Sacred Places. Sacred Islands. Sacred Mountains. Rites of passage. Hellenistic philosophy. Other Topics. Main article: Dionysia. Main articles: Dionysian Mysteries and Orphism religion. Main article: Bacchanalia. Dionysos surrounded by his thiasus discovers Ariadne asleep at Hypnos 's side.
Frescoes in Pompeii. Main article: Jesus Christ in comparative mythology. Ancient Greece portal Myths portal Religion portal. University of Michigan Press. ISBN Brill Publications. Burkert, p. For the initiate as Bacchus, see Euripides , Bacchae Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society , 2 , — In Euripides , Bacchae — : "He holds this office, to join in dances,  to laugh with the flute, and to bring an end to cares, whenever the delight of the grape comes at the feasts of the gods, and in ivy-bearing banquets the goblet sheds sleep over men.
Archibald, in Gocha R. Tsetskhladze Ed. Ancient Greeks west and east , Brill, , pp. Algora Press. To the Cynic Heracleios. Dionysos in Archaic Greece. JSTOR History of the Theatre. Dionysism and Comedy. Rowman and Littlefield. Tesis doctoral, Universidad Complutense de Madrid. Word study tool of ancient languages. November 2, Archaeology News Network. Raymoure, K. University of Oslo. Ralph Manheim, Princeton University Press.
Aegobolus ; Pausanias , 9. Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart. Androgynos : "Androgynos androgynous : [A word applied to] Dionysos, as one doing both active, male things and passive, female ones [specifically sexual intercourse]. Retrieved 6 February Mythology For Dummies. Kistophoros : "Kistophoros basket-bearer, ivy-bearer : It seems that baskets were sacred to Dionysos and the Two Goddesses [Demeter and Persephone].
Derived from Harpocration s. Oldfather Greek historian C1st B. Typis academicis. OCLC Oinops quoting Greek Anthology 6. In the Epigrams : '. III 41, Herodian I p. Hannover: August, Nachdruck Darmstadt Band 2. Cambridge University Press. Horace Odes and Epodes: A study in word-order. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
The Classical World. In: Acta Antiqua DOI: The Strangeness of Gods: Historical perspectives on the interpretation of Athenian religion. Oxford University Press. Nilsson Vol. The Bacchae. Neeland Media LLC. Retrieved Algora Press , p. Backgrounds of Early Christianity. Eerdmans Publishing. Theatre Histories: An Introduction 3rd ed. The Dramatic Festivals of Athens. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2nd ed. Therefore, when the festival is over, they send them back out to work with the words, "To the doors, Keres, it is no longer Anthestria.
At Athens they inaugurate the new wine on the eleventh of the month, and they call the day pithoigia. At the temple of Dionysus in Limnai ["The Marshes"] the Athenians bring the new wine from the jars age mix it in honour of the god and then they drink it themselves. Because of this custom Dionysus is called Limnaios, because the wine was mixed with water and then for the first time drunk diluted.
Stambaugh, John E. Society of Biblical Literature. The Dionysiac Mysteries. In Pella, ZPE , Iacchus, p. Iacchus; scholiast on Aristophanes , Frogs Rutherford , p. Arnobius , Adversus Gentes 3. Compare with Photius , s. Zagreus, p. Encyclopedia of Reincarnation and Karma. Wiseman , "Satyrs in Rome? Bostock at Perseus: Tufts.
History of Western Philosophy. Routledge, , p. The Background to Horace's Ars Poetica". The Journal of Roman Studies. Certainly it is hard to imagine anything less consistent with Roman mos maiorum than the anarchic hedonism of satyrs.
It was precisely libido, that morally subversive aspect of the Bacchic cult, that led to its brutal suppression The Chronicle of Lanercost, — Glasgow, Scotland: Glasgow : J. Gloucestershire: Sutton Publishing. History of Windham County, Connecticut. New York, Preston. Hellenic Polytheism: Household Worship. Retrieved 3 August George Rawlinson Translation. Book 2. Frank Cole Babbitt, Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies. Classical Philology. Nysa was regarded as the birthplace and first home of Dionysus.
The divine marriage of Plouton and Persephone was celebrated on 'the meadow'. The dangerous region that Kore let herself be lured to in search of flowers was likely not originally connected to Plouton but to Dionysus, as Dionysus himself had the strange surname of 'the gaping one', though despite this the notion that the wine god in his quality as the Lord of the Underworld does not appear on the surface of the hymn.
The fact that Demeter refuses to drink wine on the grounds that it would be against themis indicates that she is well aware of who Persephone's abductor is, that it is the Subterranean cover name of Dionysus. The critic of the mysteries, the severe philosopher Herakleitos once declared "Hades is the same as Dionysos. In the iconography after his initiation Herakles in shown wearing a fringed white garment with a Dionysian deerskin thrown over it. Kore is shown with her mother Demeter and a snake twined around the Mystery basket, foreshadowing the secret, as making friends with snakes was Dionysian [p.
The god of the Anthesteria was Dionysus, who celebrated his marriage in Athens amid flowers, the opening of wine jars, and the rising up of the souls of the dead [p. There are two reliefs in a marble votive relief of the fourth century BC. One depicts Kore crowning her mother Demeter, the deities at the second altar are Persephone and her husband Dionysus as the recumbent god has the features of the bearded Dionysus rather than of Plouton. In his right hand, he raises not a cornucopia, the symbol of wealth, but a wine vessel and in his left, he bears the goblet for the wine.
Over their heads an inscription reads "To the God and Goddess" [pp. The fragments of a gilded jar cover of the Kerch type show Dionysus, Demeter, little Ploutos, Kore, and a curly-haired boy clad in a long garment, one of the first son's of the Eleusinian king who was the first to be initiated. On another vase, Dionysus sits on his omphalos with his thryrsos in his left hand, sitting opposite Demeter, looking at each other severely. Kore is shown moving from Demeter towards Dionysus, as if trying to reconcile them [p.
The duplication of the mystery god as subterranean father and subterranean son, as Father Zagreus and the child Zagreus, husband and son of Persephone, has more to do with the mysteries of Dionysus than with the Eleusinian Mysteries. But a duplication of the chthonian, mystical Dionysus is provided even by his youthful aspect, which became distinguished and classical as the son of Semele from the son of Persephone.
Semele, though not of Eleusinian origin, is also a double of Persephone [p. What is a God? The Classical Press of Wales. The identification of Hades and Dionysus does not seem to be a particular doctrine of Herakleitos, nor does it commit him to monotheism. The evidence for a cult connection between the two is quite extensive, particularly in Southern Italy, and the Dionysiac mysteries are associated with death rituals.
The Lord of the Underworld bore this name in the youthful form represented in the statue, ascribed to Praxiteles, which is now in the National Museum at Athens and probably stood originally in the place where it was found, the Ploutonion. This youth is Plouton himself — radiant but disclosing a strange inner darkness — and at the same time his double and servant, comparable to Hermes or Pais besides Kabeiros or Theos [p. The plentiful hair or long curls suggest rather Hades kyanochaites, Hades of the dark hair [p.
Eleusis: Archetypal Image of Mother and Daughter. Princeton University Press. Virgin Mother Goddesses of Antiquity. Palgrave Macmillan. The American Journal of Philology , The Walters Art Museum. The British Museum. Edmonds , p.
As Linforth noticed, "It is a curious thing that the name Zagreus does not appear in any Orphic poem or fragment, nor is it used by any author who refers to Orpheus" Linforth In his reconstruction of the story, however, Lobeck made extensive use of the fifth-century epic of Nonnos, who does use the name Zagreus, and later scholars followed his cue.
The association of Dionysos with Zagreus appears first explicitly in a fragment of Callimachus preserved in the Etymologicum Magnum fr. Earlier evidence, however, e. For other summaries see Morford, p. For a detailed examination of many of the ancient sources pertaining to this myth see Linforth, pp. The most extensive account in ancient sources is found in Nonnus , Dionysiaca 5.
See also Pausanias , 7. Includes Frazer's notes. Oldfather : "Zeus taking up the child [i. Dionysos from the dead body of his mother Semele], handed it over to Hermes, and ordered him to take it to the cave in Nysa, which lay between Phoinikia Phoenicia and the Neilos the River Nile , where he should deliver it to the Nymphai Nymphs that they should rear it and with great solicitude bestow upon it the best of care. James G. Frazer, translator. Abhinav Publications. Ars Orientalis.
ISSN Transcribed by Helen Bradstock. Version 1. Rouse Greek epic C5th A. Now I am both--I have horns and I ride a bull! Selene looked with a jealous eye through the air, to see how Ampleos rode on the murderous marauding bull. She sent him a cattlechasing gadfly; and the bull, pricked continually all over by the sharp sting, galloped away like a horse through pathless tracts. Boyle Roman poetry C1st B. Its cause, too, takes a moment to teach. He trusted him with a vine hanging from the leaves of an elm; it is now named for the boy.
The reckless youth fell picking gaudy grapes on a branch.
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